1. Deprivation of nationality may be a serious violation of basic human rights within the meaning of Article 9 (1) a of Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 (known as the 'Qualification Directive').
2. In assessing the severity of the violation of rights caused by a deprivation of citizenship, under Article 4 (3) c of the Qualification Directive the individual posi-tion and personal circumstances of the person concerned must also be taken into account.
3. A person is stateless within the meaning of Section 3 (1) of the Asylum Pro-cedure Act if no state views him or her as a national under its own law, i.e., a de jure stateless person. For de facto stateless persons, therefore, a threat of per-secution must be examined with reference to the state of their de jure nationality.
4. The habitual residence of a stateless person under Section 3 (1) of the Asy-lum Procedure Act need not be lawful. It is sufficient if the stateless person fo-cused his or her life in the country, and therefore did not merely transiently spend time there, and the competent authorities did not initiate measures to terminate his residence.